CBSE CLASS 12 Physics: AN OVERVIEW
Class 12 board examination is a benchmark in a student’s academic career; it opens many doors for the students in the future for a promising career.
So, are you among those students who want to make a turning point in your career? If yes, then you need to understand the CBSE Class 12 subjectwise syllabus and make a thorough preparation.
CBSE Class 12 syllabus is provided here by SpeEdLabs, to help the students in their journey towards the preparation for the 20212022 academic years. The syllabus is designed as per the NCERT (National Council of Education and Research Training). A new bifurcated syllabus has been released by the board and the board exams will be conducted in two parts. This step has been taken for the worldwide spread of Covid19. Here, we are providing the syllabus along with other necessary details for CBSE Class 12 for all subjects.
Below we have provided all the information regarding CBSE Class 12 exams for the academic years 20212022.
In CBSE Class 12, the students learn many new fundamentals in Mathematics and with the help of some basic knowledge from class 11; it doesn’t get them in much trouble. They will have a clear notion about the syllabus structure and the marking scheme for the entire academic year. This will help them to prepare in a better way with proper instructions and knowledge.
Physics Class XII (Code N. 042) (202122)
Syllabus assigned for Term I (Theory)
Time: 90 Minutes Max Marks: 35
No. of Periods 
Marks 

Unit–I 
Electrostatics 
23 
17 
Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields 

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance 

UnitII 
Current Electricity 
15 

Chapter–3: Current Electricity 

UnitIII 
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 
16 
18 
Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism 

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter 

UnitIV 
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents 
19 

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction Chapter 7: Alternating currents 

Total 
73 
35 
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s lawforce between twopoint charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of twopoint charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, VI characteristics (linear and non linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge(qualitative ideas only). Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell (qualitative ideas only)
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometerits current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.
Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits. AC generator and transformer.
Total Periods:16
First term practical examination will be organised by schools as per the directions of CBSE. The record to be submitted by the students at the time of first term examination has to include a record of at least 4 Experiments and 3 Activities to be demonstrated by teacher.
Time Allowed: one and half hours Max. Marks: 15
Two experiments to be performed by students at time of examination 
8 marks 
Practical record [experiments and activities] 
2 marks 
Viva on experiments, and activities 
5 marks 
Total 
15 marks 
Experiments assigned for Term I
1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph between potential difference versus current.
2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using metre bridge.
OR
To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.
OR
To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 3. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
OR
To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer. 4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by halfdeflection method and to find its figure of merit.
5. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
OR
To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.
1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. 2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
Class XII Syllabus assigned for Term II (Theory)
Time: 2 Hours Max Marks: 35
No of Periods 
Marks 

Unit–V 
Electromagnetic Waves 
02 
17 
Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves 

Unit–VI 
Optics 
18 

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments 

Chapter–10: Wave Optics 

Unit–VII 
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 
07 
11 
Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 

Unit–VIII 
Atoms and Nuclei 
11 

Chapter–12: Atoms 

Chapter–13: Nuclei 

Unit–IX 
Electronic Devices 
07 
7 
Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits 

Total 
45 
35 
Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.
Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and
sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum
Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equationparticle nature of light.
Experimental study of photoelectric effect
Matter waveswave nature of particles, deBroglie relation
Alphaparticle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force Massenergy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose pn junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.
Total Periods: 16
The second term practical examination will be organised by schools as per the directions of CBSE and viva will be taken by both internal and external observers. The record to be submitted by the students at the time of second term examination has to include a record of at least 4 Experiments and 3 Activities to be demonstrated by teacher.
Evaluation Scheme
Time Allowed: one and half hours Max. Marks: 15
Two experiments to be performed by students at time of examination 
8 marks 
Practical record [experiments and activities] 
2 marks 
Viva on experiments, and activities 
5 marks 
Total 
15 marks 
1. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and1/v.
2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
OR
To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
3. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
4. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope. 5. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror. 6. To draw the IV characteristic curve for a pn junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.
1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
2. Use of multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.
3. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.
6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of XII
Evaluation Scheme (Term I and Term II)
Time Allowed: one hour Max. Marks:15
Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus 
3 marks 
Written test (based on given/prescribed practicals) 
5 marks 
Practical Record 
2 marks 
Viva 
5 marks 
Total 
15 marks 
Meter scale, general shape of the voltmeter/ammeter, battery/power supply, connecting wires, standard resistances, connecting wires, voltmeter/ammeter, meter bridge, screw gauge, jockey Galvanometer, Resistance Box, standard Resistance, connecting wires, Potentiometer, jockey, Galvanometer, Lechlanche cell, Daniell cell [simple distinction between the two visàvis their outer (glass and copper) containers], rheostat connecting wires, Galvanometer, resistance box, Plugin and tapping keys, connecting wires battery/power supply, Diode, Resistor (Wirewound or carbon ones with two wires connected to two ends), capacitors (one or two types), Inductors, Simple electric/electronic bell, battery/power supply, Plugin and tapping keys, Convex lens, concave lens, convex mirror, concave mirror, Core/hollow wooden cylinder, insulated wire, ferromagnetic rod, Transformer core, insulated wire.
1. To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph between voltage and current.
2. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel combination) of resistances by Ohm’s law. 3. To find the resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using a meter bridge. 4. To compare the e.m.f of two given primary cells using a potentiometer. 5. To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method.
1. To identify a resistor, capacitor, inductor and diode from a mixed collection of such items.
2. To observe the difference between
i. a convex lens and a concave lens
ii. a convex mirror and a concave mirror and to estimate the likely difference between the power of two given convex /concave lenses.
3. To design an inductor coil and to know the effect of
i. change in the number of turns
ii. Introduction of ferromagnetic material as its core material on the inductance of the coil.
4. To design a (i) step up (ii) step down transformer on a given core and know the relation between its input and output voltages.
Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.
The CBSE course structure is designed in a manner to ensure that students do not go through a lot of pressure, moreover, books are made interactive and interesting for students to enjoy their studies. A lot of fun activities are included in between the chapters to help students learn in a playful way. It makes the process of conveying knowledge to the students efficient and healthy.
The CBSE course structure is designed in a manner to ensure that students do not go through a lot of pressure, moreover, books are made interactive and interesting for students to enjoy their studies. A lot of fun activities are included in between the chapters to help students learn in a playful way. It makes the process of conveying knowledge to the students efficient and healthy.
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